Disfruta del Lazarillo de Tormes en PDF: la adaptación de Vicens Vives
Lazarillo de Tormes: A Classic Spanish Novel
Lazarillo de Tormes is one of the most famous and influential novels in Spanish literature. It is considered to be the first picaresque novel, a genre that depicts the adventures and misfortunes of a low-class rogue or trickster who lives by his wits in a corrupt society. It is also a satire that criticizes the hypocrisy and moral decay of the Spanish society of its time, especially among the clergy, the nobility, and the government.
pdf el lazarillo de tormes de vicens vives
The author of Lazarillo de Tormes is unknown, although some scholars have suggested possible candidates such as Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, Juan de Ortega, or Alfonso de Valdés. The novel was first published anonymously in 1554 in three different editions in Burgos, Alcalá de Henares, and Antwerp. It was soon banned by the Inquisition for its irreverent tone and content, and a censored version called El Lazarillo castigado (The Punished Lazarillo) was published in 1573, omitting two chapters that were considered particularly offensive.
The novel tells the story of Lázaro, a poor boy who was born near Salamanca by the river Tormes (hence his nickname). He narrates his life in a series of episodes or tratados (treatises), each one describing his service under a different master who exploits him or cheats him in some way. Through his experiences, Lázaro learns to survive in a harsh world by using his cunning, his wit, and his humor. He also exposes the vices and follies of his masters, who represent different sectors of society.
Summary of the plot
The prologue and the first master
In the prologue, Lázaro explains that he decided to write his autobiography because he wanted to share his remarkable life story with others, hoping that they might learn something or be entertained by it. He also says that he does not care about what people think of him or his actions, because he believes that everyone has their own faults and secrets.
Lázaro then begins his story by telling how he was born in a mill by the river Tormes. His father was a miller who was arrested for stealing flour from his customers and was sent to fight against the Moors in Granada. His mother then moved to Salamanca with Lázaro and became a servant at an inn. There she met a black man named Zaide, who became her lover and Lázaro's stepfather. Zaide was also arrested for stealing from his master, leaving Lázaro's mother alone with two children (Lázaro had a half-brother named Juan).
Lázaro's mother then gave him away to a blind man who asked for a boy to guide him around. This was Lázaro's first master, who taught him many tricks and lessons about life, but also treated him very harshly. Lázaro had to endure hunger, cold, beatings, and insults from his master, who often cheated him out of food or money. Lázaro also learned to deceive his master in various ways, such as stealing wine from his bottle, eating grapes from his basket, or making him hit his head against a stone pillar.
The second master and the third master
After leaving the blind man in Escalona, Lázaro found another master in Maqueda: a priest who was even stingier than the blind man. He kept all his food locked up in a chest that only he had the key to. Lázaro suffered more hunger under this master than under any other. He managed to get hold of a duplicate key to open the chest when the priest was away, but he was eventually caught when he left some bread crumbs inside. The priest beat him mercilessly with a stick until he confessed how he got into the chest.
Lázaro then ran away from the priest and went to Toledo, where he met his third master: a squire who pretended to be rich and noble but was actually poor and indebted. He lived in an empty house with no furniture or servants. He wore old clothes that he tried to keep clean and neat. He had no income or occupation except walking around town with an air of dignity. He often skipped meals or begged for food from his neighbors or friends. He lied to Lázaro about his family background and his future prospects.
Lázaro felt sorry for this master, who treated him kindly but could not provide for him. He decided to help him by finding ways to get food for both of them, such as asking for alms from churchgoers or buying bread on credit from a baker. He also tried to cheer him up by praising his appearance or telling him stories. However, one day he discovered that his master had left town without paying his debts or saying goodbye to him.
The fourth master and the fifth master
Lázaro's fourth master was a friar of the Order of Mercy who was very fond of walking around town visiting people or doing business. He wore out more shoes than any other friar in his convent. He gave Lázaro a pair of shoes that were too big for him and made him walk with him everywhere. Lázaro soon got tired of this lifestyle and left him after finding another opportunity.
His fifth master was a seller of indulgences (pardons granted by the Church for sins committed) who traveled from town to town with two accomplices: a constable (a law officer) and an alguacil (a bailiff). They staged elaborate performances to persuade people to buy their indulgences, using tricks such as fake miracles or false testimonies. They also bribed local authorities or clergy to support their business.
Lázaro helped them by playing different roles in their schemes, such as pretending to be sick or possessed by demons. He also learned how they manipulated people's fears or hopes to make them pay more money for their salvation. He admired their cleverness but also despised their dishonesty.
The sixth master and the seventh master
Lázaro's sixth master was a painter who made portraits or religious images for churches or private customers. He taught Lázaro how to mix colors and use brushes, but he also made him do other tasks such as carrying ladders or scaffolds or cleaning up after work. Lázaro enjoyed this occupation but did not stay long with this master because he found another one who offered him more benefits.
His seventh and final master was an archpriest (a senior priest) who lived in Toledo near San Salvador church. He hired Lázaro as his water carrier (a person who delivered water from wells or fountains to houses) because he liked his appearance and manners. He paid him well and gave him good clothes and food.
The epilogue and the moral of the story
In the epilogue, Lázaro tells how he became a town crier (a person who announced news or events in public) thanks to the recommendation of his master, the archpriest. He also tells how he dealt with the rumors and insults about his wife's infidelity. He says that he pretended not to care or notice, and that he even defended her reputation when someone spoke ill of her. He claims that he did this because he loved her and because he was grateful for the good life that he had with her and the archpriest.
Lázaro also reflects on the moral of his story, saying that he does not regret anything that he did or suffered in his life. He says that he learned from his experiences and that they made him who he is today. He also says that he does not judge his masters or anyone else, because everyone has their own reasons and circumstances for their actions. He concludes by saying that he is happy and content with his current situation, and that he hopes that God will grant him more years of life and prosperity.
Analysis of the novel
The genre and style of Lazarillo de Tormes
Lazarillo de Tormes is widely considered to be the first picaresque novel, a genre that originated in Spain in the 16th century and influenced many other writers and works in Europe and beyond. The picaresque novel typically features a low-born protagonist who narrates his or her adventures and misfortunes in a corrupt and hypocritical society. The protagonist usually serves different masters who represent different social classes or professions, and exposes their vices and follies through irony, satire, and humor. The protagonist also uses his or her cunning, wit, and humor to survive and overcome the challenges and obstacles that he or she faces.
The style of Lazarillo de Tormes is simple, direct, and colloquial, reflecting the voice and personality of its narrator. The novel is divided into seven chapters or tratados (treatises), each one focusing on a different master or episode in Lázaro's life. The novel has a realistic tone and setting, describing places, people, customs, and events that were familiar to its contemporary readers. The novel also has a moral tone and intention, criticizing the social and moral problems of its time and offering a lesson or example for its readers.
The narrator and the point of view
Lázaro is both the narrator and the protagonist of the novel. He tells his story in the first person singular, using the past tense. He addresses his readers directly, sometimes asking them questions or inviting them to judge his actions or opinions. He also uses rhetorical devices such as comparisons, contrasts, exaggerations, irony, sarcasm, or metaphors to make his story more interesting or persuasive.
Lázaro's point of view is subjective and biased, reflecting his own experiences, feelings, thoughts, values, and interests. He does not always tell the truth or the whole truth, sometimes omitting details or changing facts to suit his purpose or image. He also does not always act consistently or coherently, sometimes contradicting himself or changing his mind. He also does not always have a clear or fixed moral stance, sometimes justifying his actions or criticizing others without applying the same standards to himself.
The characters and their roles
The characters in Lazarillo de Tormes are mostly flat and static, meaning that they do not change much throughout the story or have much depth or complexity. They are also mostly unnamed and stereotypical, representing different types of people or groups in society. They serve as foils or contrasts for Lázaro's character development and as targets for his satire and criticism.
The main characters are Lázaro's seven masters: the blind man, the priest, the squire, the friar, the seller of indulgences, the painter, and the archpriest. They represent different sectors of society such as religion, nobility, commerce, art, and law. They also represent different vices such as greed, pride, hypocrisy, corruption, and lust. They exploit Lázaro in various ways, but they also teach him valuable lessons about life and human nature.
The minor characters are Lázaro's family members: his father Tomé González, his mother Antona Pérez, his stepfather Zaide, and his wife Antona Pérez (the same name as his mother). They represent Lázaro's origins and influences in his early and later life. They also represent different aspects of love and loyalty in family relationships.
The social and historical context of Lazarillo de Tormes
Lazarillo de Tormes reflects the social and historical context of Spain in the 16th century, a period marked by political and religious conflicts, economic and cultural changes, and social and moral crises. The novel portrays the reality of poverty, hunger, violence, injustice, and oppression that many people faced in their daily lives. The novel also criticizes the institutions and authorities that were supposed to protect and serve the people, such as the Church, the nobility, the government, and the law. The novel exposes the hypocrisy and corruption that pervaded these institutions and authorities, as well as their abuse of power and privilege.
Lazarillo de Tormes also reflects the literary and cultural context of Spain in the 16th century, a period marked by innovation and diversity, as well as by tradition and conservatism. The novel belongs to the Renaissance movement, which was characterized by a revival of classical learning and values, a humanist perspective on human nature and society, a critical attitude towards authority and tradition, and a creative expression of individuality and originality. The novel also belongs to the Spanish Golden Age (Siglo de Oro), which was characterized by a flourishing of literature and art in various genres and forms, such as poetry, drama, novel, essay, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, etc.
Lazarillo de Tormes is a classic Spanish novel that has captivated readers for centuries with its humor, realism, irony, satire, morality, and humanity. It is a novel that reflects the Spanish society and culture of its time but also transcends its historical context with its universal themes and values. It is a novel that influenced many other writers and works in literature and art but also remains unique and original in its genre and style. It is a novel that challenges its readers to question their assumptions and beliefs but also entertains them with its stories and characters. It is a novel that deserves to be read and enjoyed today as much as it was when it was first published.
- Where can I find a PDF version of Lazarillo de Tormes by Vicens Vives? - You can find a PDF version of Lazarillo de Tormes by Vicens Vives on Scribd or Google Drive . These are free online platforms where you can download or read documents online. - What are some adaptations and translations of Lazarillo de Tormes? - There are many adaptations and translations of Lazarillo de Tormes in different languages and media. Some examples are: - A French translation by François de Rosset in 1620. - An English translation by David Rowland in 1634. - A German translation by Johann Christoph Wagenseil in 1687. - A film adaptation by César Fernández Ardavín in 1959. - A comic adaptation by Francisco Ibáñez in 1972. - A musical adaptation by Antonio Mingote in 1976. - A TV series adaptation by Fernando Fernán Gómez in 2001. - What are some other examples of picaresque novels? - Some other examples of picaresque novels are: - El Buscón (The Swindler) by Francisco de Quevedo in 1626. - Guzmán de Alfarache by Mateo Alemán in 1599-1604. - Gil Blas by Alain-René Lesage in 1715-1735. - Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in 1722. - Tom Jones by Henry Fielding in 1749. - Candide by Voltaire in 1759. - Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain in 1884. - What are some differences between the original version and the censored version of Lazarillo de Tormes? - The censored version of Lazarillo de Tormes, published in 1573 as Lazarillo de Tormes castigado (The Punished Lazarillo), was edited by Juan López de Velasco, a royal cosmographer and censor for the Inquisition. He removed two chapters (the fourth and the fifth) that were considered particularly offensive for their mockery of religious figures and practices. He also changed or deleted many words, phrases, or passages that he deemed blasphemous, heretical, immoral, or indecent. He added some moralizing comments and explanations to justify or correct some of Lázaro's actions or opinions. He also modified the title and the prologue to present the novel as a moral lesson rather than a humorous story. - What are some similarities and differences between Lazarillo de Tormes and Don Quixote? - Lazarillo de Tormes and Don Quixote are both classic Spanish novels that belong to different genres but share some common elements. They both feature a protagonist who narrates his adventures and misfortunes in a corrupt and hypocritical society. They both use irony, satire, humor, and realism to criticize the social and moral problems of their time. They both influenced many other writers and works in literature and art. However, they also have some differences. Lazarillo de Tormes is a picaresque novel that depicts the life of a low-class rogue who serves different masters and exposes their vices and follies. Don Quixote is a chivalric novel that depicts the life of a nobleman who is obsessed with knight-errantry and tries to imitate the heroes of his books. Lazarillo de Tormes is a short novel that consists of seven chapters or tratados (treatises). Don Quixote is a long novel that consists of two parts with many chapters each. Lazarillo de Tormes is an anonymous novel that was published in 1554 and banned by the Inquisition in 1559. Don Quixote is a novel by Miguel de Cervantes that was published in 1605 and 1615 and praised by many critics and readers.